NASA has also attracted non-traditional partners for the program. A year ago, NASA and the Australian government signed a cooperation agreement on Artemis, with the Australian government pledging to spend $105 million over five years on research on the Moon. This may include adapting technologies remotely and to mining for use in lunar emissions. After the treaty came into force, the United States and the Soviet Union cooperated in planned and manned space companies. The Space Treaty, which is formally the treaty on the principles governing the activity of states in the exploration and use of space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is a treaty that unders andses international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union on January 27, 1967 and entered into force on October 10, 1967. As of June 2020, 110 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not yet completed ratification.  In addition, Taiwan, currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty before the UN General Assembly voted to transfer China`s seat to the People`s Republic of China (PRC) in 1971.  The nature of this possibility of observation and the conditions under which it could be granted are determined by mutual agreement between the States concerned. Bridenstine said: “The gateway uses exactly the same international agreement, the IGA, which uses the International Space Station.” He added that NASA “shared with Roscosmos what we want to do with the bridge in terms of working with them and seeing what interests them, and we just haven`t heard it again.” Thales Alenia Space France will lead the development of the hyperspectral copernicus imaging mission, CHIME, with a contract of 455 million euros. The contract was signed in the presence of the French Minister of Economy and Finance, Bruno Le Maire. The mission will carry a visible shortwave infrared spectrometer. The European Space Agency (ESA), as an organisation, has also not signed the agreements, but a number of ESA member states have already taken note.
This is not surprising. The ambitious deadline set by the United States for the project will conflict with the long consultation of the 17 Member States that ESA must sign as a whole. ESA signed the contract for the development of the Copernicus Imaging microwave radiometer, mission, CIMR, with Thales Alenia Space Italy in the presence of the Undersecretary of the Council of Ministers of Italy, Riccardo Fraccaro. The market is worth 495 million euros. “We`ve already seen a wonderful dynamic and real growth” in the Australian space industry because of the program, she said, underscoring the country`s commitment to “stand side by side with our partners, the United States, on the way to the Moon and further to Mars.” “While many countries have signed the Artemis agreements today, there is room for more and we look forward to working with all our international partners,” said Bridenstine. In the end, Artemis` agreements are still only a series of directives, with no defined enforcement mechanisms. There are no real consequences if a country signs the agreement and violates any of the provisions. However, Bridenstine hoped that the participation of other nations would be sufficient to ensure that countries behaved in accordance with the agreements.