6. We are all together: when the Paris Agreement was adopted, almost every planet on the planet agreed to play their part in reducing emissions and stemming global climate change. No country is immune to the effects of climate change and no country can meet this challenge alone. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as penalties for non-compliance) only for industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to take their share and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement provides for greater flexibility: commitments that countries should make are not included, countries can voluntarily set their emissions targets and countries will not be penalized if they do not meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess, over time, the objectives of individual and collective countries, in order to bring the world closer to the broader objectives of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next round of targets every five years, contrary to the Kyoto Protocol, which was aimed at this target but which contained no specific requirements to achieve this goal. The world should certainly feel a sense of urgency, but let us not panic. The collective sum of our decisions is what global warming has brought in the first place, and the collective sum of our decisions may be what limits them. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally entitled to it.  The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S.
government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect.  After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation.   Historic Paris Agreement adopted. In the first truly global agreement on climate change mitigation, 195 countries approve a plan to prevent global temperatures from exceeding historic levels by more than 1.5 degrees Celsius. It will come into force 11 months later. 5. The fight against climate change is not just about the environment – it is about national security, health and much more: climate change mitigation is not just about melting ice caps and shrinking salamanders (although the impact of climate change on our environment is not overestimated).