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Tra pace e giustizia

Sul numero di Rolling Stone americano uscito a inizio dicembre c’è un articolo molto lungo e molto bello sul Darfur. È un pezzo che racconta e spiega di come e quanto può essere incisivo e determinante un movimento di opinione organizzato, di cosa l’occidente può fare e cosa non può fare in simili situazioni, di come a volte anche dalle migliori intenzioni possono scaturire conseguenze negative e soprattutto di quanto siano evidenti i limiti della diplomazia e del cosiddetto peacekeeping in scenari così frammentati e devastati.

One of the ever-pressing, never-resolved questions in international affairs is how the world ought to weigh claims of peace versus calls for justice. If a government is strong enough to provide stability, and therefore some measure of guarantee against future wars, how many of its past crimes should we excuse for a greater likelihood of peace? In Darfur, this issue has been fiercely debated, in part because neither outcome is certain. If we choose peace and forgive the Sudanese for Darfur, as Gration has seemed to suggest, there is no guarantee that war will be less likely. And if we choose justice and prosecute Bashir for his crimes, as human rights activists want, there is little reason to believe that the international system can deliver it. “There’s no silver bullet when it comes to the peace-vs.-justice question,” says Fowler.

This is the dilemma facing Obama, who entered office believing he had a mandate to solve the problem of Darfur. No modern presidential administration has started out steeped in realpolitik; every one has been idealistic in some way — against communism or terrorism, for human rights or diplomacy — and every recent envoy to Sudan has brought some measure of these enthusiasms to the task. But they have all run into the same problem Gration faces. The West has not been able to deliver justice, and so the choice of peace versus justice is no choice at all. The African Union, the International Criminal Court, the United Nations — none has been able to resolve the conflict in Darfur, despite one of the most extensive efforts at humanitarian intervention the world has ever witnessed. “There needs to be a lot of work and change and attention to the institutions of international government,” says Jendayi Frazer. “This revealed all the weaknesses.”